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Gamma-Ray Measurements of Soil Samples from Southern Parts of Bethlehem up to Southern Parts of Hebron in Palestine

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dc.contributor.advisor Zalloum, Othman H Y
dc.contributor.author Shatat, Ahmad
dc.date.accessioned 2022-02-17T12:10:20Z
dc.date.accessioned 2022-05-22T08:55:43Z
dc.date.available 2022-02-17T12:10:20Z
dc.date.available 2022-05-22T08:55:43Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.uri http://localhost:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/8390
dc.description Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Physics en_US
dc.description.abstract The aim of this study is to measure the radioactive level relative to distination, where we managed to collect 4 samples from South Bethlehem, 4 samples from north Hebron, and 10 samples from south Hebron and in each of these three main distinations samples were collected from east to west. These samples were measured with the sodium iodide dopped with thalium detector (NaI(Tl). After making the proper calculations for the main chain serieses of (_^238)U,(_^235)U and(_^232)Th, and (_^40)K natural isotope, and artificial (_^137)Cs radioisotope, we obtained the following values averaged over samples((57.0±9.7), (3.151±0.326), (47.9±6.0), (78±8.9), and (1.2±0.1))Bq/kg respectivily, where these values showed to be close enough to worldwide averages and ranges. In addition to that radioactive gauge values which demonstrates the levels of safety were calculated, and these values in successive are: Radium equivalent activity with a value of (131.5±15.1) (Bq/Kg), Absorbed dose rate in air with a value of (59.4±6.7) nGy/h, Absorbed dose rate in air considering (_^137)Cs and cosmic radiation effects with a value of (93.4±6.7) (nGy/h), Annual effective dose equivalent with a value of (0.481±0.0114) (mSvy^(-1) ), External hazard index with a value of (0.3551±0.0407), Internal hazard index with a value of (0.5092±0.0663), and Radioactivity level index with a value of (0.9108±0.0150) where the last three values are relative numbers with no units where all these values are within the averages and ranges of worldwide values. In addition to that, many of the isotopes of airborne effluents that are usually due to nuclear power plants and the nuclear tests where found, among these effluents where J_135, which showed up in most of the samples with an average activity over samples of (66.596±8.524)Bq/Kg, and the isotopes (Nb-95, Mo-99, Sb-125, J-131, Cs-134 and Ba-140), with activities successively and respectivily (1.242±0.135, 116.001±15.161, 42.351±12.934, 14.01±0.7, 134.756±32.867 and 34.977±8.181)Bq/Kg. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Gamma-Ray, Measurements of Soil Samples en_US
dc.title Gamma-Ray Measurements of Soil Samples from Southern Parts of Bethlehem up to Southern Parts of Hebron in Palestine en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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